Bleeding during this procedure is normal. In fact, some bleeding after the surgery is also expected. There can be several causes of bleeding and the treatment will vary depending on the cause and your individual situation. It is possible that urgent surgery may be necessary to stop serious bleeding after your procedure or to repair a blood vessel that was damaged. In rare instances, it may be necessary to open your chest in the ICU or recovery room to attempt to control sudden and life-threatening bleeding. Fortunately, this occurs rarely.
If bleeding is severe, blood and blood products are often used. When this is the case, there is a small risk of a blood transfusion reaction. This may cause an allergic reaction, abnormal blood clotting or kidney failure. Because the blood and blood products are actively screened for various diseases and problems, including AIDS and hepatitis among others, blood transfusions are generally safe.
However, there is an extremely rare chance that you may contract an illness secondary to these transfusions. The estimated risk of:
Hepatitis C from blood transfusions is 1 in 100,000
Hepatitis B is 1 in 200,000 and
HIV is 1 in 600,000.
Depending on your individual situation, it may also be possible for you to donate your own blood. If so, you will usually donate blood about 3-4 weeks prior to the surgery.